Human Activity Leading Earth into a New Geological Epoch

Human Activity Leading Earth into a New Geological Epoch


The evidence for a new geological epoch which marks the impact of human activity on Earth is now overwhelming, according to a new research. The Anthro-pocene, which is argued to start in the mid-20th century is marked by the spread of materials such as aluminium, concrete and plastic and fallout from nuclear testing, coincident with elevated greenhouse gas emissions and unprecedented trans-global species invasions.

An international group of scientists is studying whether human activity has driven Earth into a new geological epoch—the Anthropocene.

They analysed to what extent human actions are recorded as measurable signals in geological strata and whether the Anthropocene world is markedly different from the stable Holocene Epoch of the last 11,700 years that allowed human civilisation to develop.


“Humans have long affected the environment, but recently there has been a rapid global spread of novel materials including aluminium… which are leaving their mark in sediments,” said Colin Waters of the British Geological Survey. “Fossil-fuel combustion has dispersed fly ash particles worldwide… coincident with the peak distribution of the ‘bomb spike’ is radionuclides generated by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons,” he added,w “All of this shows that there is an underlying reality to the Anthropocene concept,” said Jan Zalasiewicz of the University of Leicester in the U.K.



Need of NCERT Books for IAS with other UPSC Study Materials

Need of NCERT Books for IAS with other UPSC Study Materials

We all know that CBSE Board only follows the Books of NCERT in the complete education system and to maintain the quality of education, Lots of new and up to date  NCERT Books and the syllabus is introduced by the board every or the other year. NCERT Books for IAS are very important simultaneously with the Other Best Books for IAS or the various study materials issued by various publishers and Authors. NCERT books help a lot to Civil service aspirants for clearing basic general knowledge about everything.


NCERT Books and Other Popular Study Materials will really help the aspirants in UPSC Exam


Well, the answer is YES Because the Books for UPSC Examinations are sufficient for UPSC CSE but the basic knowledge is not given because they think that the students and aspirants already know every small thing. Since India is very vast country in terms of community and culture. All the states have their own board and most of the states have different vernacular Medium apart from English. That is why the need of NCERT Books for IAS with other Books for UPSC comes into existence. Books are very essential and very important for the need of aspirants to clear UPSC Examinations.


Cost of NCERT Books and How to get NCERT Books with other Books of IAS


NCERT Books can be downloaded for free and also can be purchased with the discount up to 60 % from and other websites. Other study material can also be purchased from the same website. Wherever you will buy the Books of UPSC , The main thing comes up with the quality of the content of the books and the books which are listed at are very authentic and can be taken with complete trust.

General Knowledge Current Issues from World

General Knowledge Current Issues from World


general knowledge from current world

2015 was earth’s warmest year since 1880: NOAA : 2015 was not just the Earth’s hottest year on record, it left a century of high temperature marks in the dust as well. The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA announced on January 20, 2016 that 2015 was by far the hottest year since modern record-keeping began in 1880. The NOAA said 2015’s temperature was 58.62°F (14.79°C), passing 2014 by a record margin of 0.29°F. That is 1.62°F above the 20-century average. NASA, which measures differently, said that 2015 was 0.23°F warmer than the record set in 2014. Because of the wide margin over 2014, NASA calculated that 2015 was a record with 94 percent certainty, about double-the certainty it had last year when announcing 2014 as a record. Although 2015 is now the hottest on record, it was the fourth time in 11 years that the Earth broke annual marks for high temperature. Scientists blame a combination of El Nino and increasing man-made global warming.
Union Government decides to shift to BS-VI emission norms directly from BS-IV in 2020 : The Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways on January 7, 2016 decided to implement the Bharat Stage (BS) VI norms from April 1, 2020 to curb vehicular pollution. The decision was taken at an inter-ministerial meeting chaired by Union Road Transport and Highways Minister Mr. Nitin Gadkari. At present, BSTV emission norms are in progress and they would be switched over to BS-VI emission norms by skipping BS-V emission norms altogether. Currently, BS-IV petrol and diesel are being supplied in whole of Northern India covering J&K, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi and parts of Rajasthan and western UP.
The rest of the country has BS-III grade fuel. From April 1, 2016, all of Goa, Kerala, Karnataka, Telangana, Odisha, Union Territories of Daman and Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Andaman & Nicobar will get BS-IV fuel. The rest of the country is scheduled to get supplies of BS-IV from April 1, 2017. In BS-V, vehicles have to be fitted with a diesel particulate filter, which needs to be optimised for Indian road conditions. In stage VI, selective catalytic reduction technology has to be optimised. At each stage, the technology would have to be validated over 6 lakh to 7 lakh kilometres. Further, to meet cleaner BS (Euro)-IV/ V fuel specifications by 2020, oil refineries will need to invest a huge amount of Rs. 80,000 crore in upgrading petrol and diesel quality. This mentioned amount is needed for BS-V norms, ever, though there is technologically not much difference between BS-V and VI. It is in the light of this huge investment required to transit to BS-VI norms, that the automobile industry is resisting the move as it will increase the cost for them.
Endangered Snow Leopard spotted for the first time in North Sikkim WWF-India on January 27, 2016 claimec that they had spotted the endangere: snow leopards for the first time in the North Sikkim Plateau. The elusive snov leopard was found during its pilot projec: in which they installed camera traps k the region to understand the occurrence of snow leopards in the region. The camera traps helped them to yield results with the first photos of the species at four different locations in North Sikkim. Earlier, the presence of snow leopards in the high altitudes of North Sikkim area were provided only by the yak herders, known as ‘Dokpas’, but these pictures have provided the first tangible evidence of their existence. Besides capturing the snow leopard, the pilot project also helped in capturing other mountain wildlife like rare pallas cat, blue sheep and the Tibetan argali. It has also provided visual documentation on free- ranging dogs and the areas they move in.
To understand the snow leopard’s status and distribution in India, WWF- India has been working in Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim since 2006.

Tips before preparing for UPSC exam

UPSC Preparation

I have gone through the gears and the UPSC, but the question is, “Where to begin my preparation?” Still need to be answered. This post discusses a particular book or topic where you should start your preparation or you are free to choose your starting point or not.

Before you start your preparation, you should have at hand these recommended books UPSC.

History, geography, politics, science, ecology and environment, economy, current affairs, general awareness, judgment, mental ability, logical reasoning, data interpretation, understanding now coming to the part where the initial course consists of the following topics .

Now you have to start your preparation can choose any of the above topics. We know that the history of the most interesting topic, so you can start with that. 2. Think about some of the more interesting papers, then we say that the logical argument, you can start from the subject.

In short this is where you prepare your IAS as long as you start somewhere, start does not matter. Once you start your preparation, among other things, means your day routinising or mock trial or try to select the best alternative way will fall into place.

But the important thing is to start somewhere. You get all the above books, nor any subject but still start preparing and planning strategy, you will not get anywhere. So rather than to start with at the right time or the theme of waiting, I suggest that you first start with any topic. In fact, you should start with your favorite or interesting topics and other subjects gradually start preparing.

For example, when I was still in junior college I Newspaper editorials, general awareness is not to read books and magazines, because after my graduation Civils will be used for the preparation, general awareness and current events but because I found very attractive to read. And it has helped me quite a few years since I already had a general awareness and knowledge of current affairs topics related to decent start with the traditional themes.

But so many candidates do not just start preparing, “right” to start with the book about the subject or feeling confused. But you should know that all of the above recommended books and where to start so if you’re feeling confused about subjects will need to prepare, I suggest you start somewhere, anywhere.

Also if you are in school or college, you need to get started immediately with no heavy books. School and college students, but this guide should help you get started. It will also help if you are a graduate and still a few years before you can take your first attempt.

Even in the above mentioned subjects, among others some interesting sub-theme you can choose. For example, the atlas or map, geography or what is read in the Top 10, the first, achievements or discoveries in general awareness, and so on in the history of modern India. You can then proceed to other matters.

While I hope this short guide to start preparing their IAS is useful for you. I would love to read your feedback in the comments below.

Details About IAS Officer Salary

Usually, the first thing we have any queries about the salary offered. The IAS (IAS) -arguably one of the most prestigious for India to pursue a career is no different. Fortunately, after the implementation of 6th Pay Commission, IAS salary has increased significantly and now, along with the prestige and perks, a third “P” is pay.

After all, once you clear all the important IAS exam, you definitely stand a handsome remuneration and their social importance of their work to society at large to be worth keeping.

An IAS officer, read on to learn about the salary.

IAS scales

IAS salary structure consists of four scales:

  • Junior Scale.
  • Senior scales.
  • Super time scale.
  • Super time scale up.
  • Each of these scales consists of the different salary bands.

Junior Scale

Pay Band: Rs 15600-39100 Grade Pay Rs 5400

Once you start out as a new recruit IAS, this is what your salary will be. Salaries mentioned here are just the basic pay. To get a more comprehensive picture of IAS remuneration you relevant HRA, DA, and may add other allowances. Typically, IAS officers are a very comfortable residence for which they will have to pay only a token rent to get. 5-6 bedroom house with garden in a living and paying rent of just 500-600 imagine!

Also, as an IAS officer, you will get to use official vehicles. It saves on transportation costs. IAS seemingly small basic salary does not look so small, after all, does it?

Senior scales

Senior Time Scale | Pay Band: Rs 15600-39100 Grade Pay Rs 6600 IAS officer usually after 7-9 years of service are encouraged to the senior time scale.
Junior Administrative Grade | Pay Band: Rs 15600-39100 Grade Pay Rs 7600 to the level you typically secretary and a deputy commissioner at the state secretariat in the city at leisure.
Selection Grade | Pay Band: Grade Pay Rs 8700 to Rs 37,400 to 67,000 in the selection grade IAS Joint Secretary of the State Government or the Central Government as the Deputy Secretary will be. As Joint Secretary in the Department can be given independent charge of a few wing.

Super Time Scale

Pay Band: Grade Pay of Rs 10,000 to Rs 37,400 to 67,000

Super Time Scale is one of awe and power. At this stage of IAS hierarchy, you likely will be some state department secretary or joint secretary in the position can be positioned in the center. To give you some context: it takes about 20 years to reach the super time scale of IAS and then become eligible for salary.

Salary Band: the scale is three salary bands.

Rs 37400-67000. Grade pay of Rs 12,000.
Apex pay scale of Rs 80,000 (fixed). Pay no grade.
Cabinet Secretary grade of Rs 90,000 (fixed). Pay no grade.
All IAS officers are lucky enough to enjoy the pay scale. Super time scale of IAS officers in the senior secretaries, chief secretaries, secretary in the central government, the cabinet secretary and the highest position in the life of an IAS officer can aspire to include.


Perks, benefits and perks enjoyed by IAS officers

What are non-monetary perks of being an officer?

Rent-free accommodation. Or very low rent housing. Yes, you have some collector in the district you live in, with a garden will have a king-size home, home helps, maybe even more fountains. 1500-2000 worth about you all will enjoy these very low rent.
For public and private use of the vehicle. Strictly speaking, you can not use government vehicles for personal use, but hardly any of this rule is observed by an officer of the Indian Administrative Service. Most of them, as well as the use of his official vehicle for personal use. After all, there in his official car to his friend’s house to go to the market or there is no harm.
Free power. What is the rate of electricity in your area? In Delhi, it is Rs 5 per unit. Electrical appliances and light bulbs going on but nothing to pay for electricity bills with tens Imagine living in a huge house. IAS officer as well enjoys this feature.
Perks of PSUs. IAS officers looking after the affairs of public companies all the benefits that regular employees of the public sector only made for IAS officers are entitled to enjoy the benefits of the addition.

A note about IAS salary

IAS salaries offered in the private sector should not be made direct comparisons between compensation. IAS officers several perks, features, and other advantages that are hard to quantify receive. For example, as stated above, IAS officers with only a token rent, rent-free accommodation or housing, official vehicles, household help, free electricity, and other such facilities that private authorities to earn pocket groove.

Also, as an IAS officer, if you are moving any one PSU, PSU, you are entitled to the same benefits as other employees. The IAS is an added bonus.

India, Brunei Ink Three MoUs – June 2016 Current Affairs

India, Brunei Ink Three MoUs




India and Brunei on February 2, 2016, signed three Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) to cooperate in the fields of defence, health and youth affairs & sports. These MoUs were signed by representatives of both countries in the presence of the visiting Vice-President Mr Hamid Ansari at Brunei’s capital Bandar Seri Begawan. The key agenda of Vice President’s visit was to decide upon the specifics of defence cooperation, health sector tie-up and establishing a gas-based urea manufacturing unit by India in Brunei. Mr Ansari also met the Sultan of Brunei Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Muizzaddin Waddaulah.

A MoU on Health Cooperation was signed with an objective to establish cooperation in the field of health between the two countries by means of pooling technical, scientific, financial and human resources and pharmaceutical regulatory practices. A MoU on Defence Cooperation has a purpose to enhance and expand the scope of Defence Cooperation between the two countries in various fields. Defence ties between India and Brunei date back to many decades and already exist in the form of naval ship visits, training of senior military officers in Staff Colleges and exchange of experience.

The defence agreement between both countries is being considered as a major diplomatic breakthrough since both sides established formal relations in 1984. Currently, oil-rich Brunei’s defence responsibilities are handled by the United Kingdom. India’s defence cooperation with Brunei plays the significant role in the present circumstances as the later has territorial disputes with China on the issue of South China Sea. A MoU on Cooperation in Youth and Sports Affairs seeks to provide a framework for exchanges of sports teams and sportspersons.

During the visit, Vice-Presiden: Mr Hamid Ansari also talked about: terrorism, especially how technology ha; been used and the importance of sharing information to fight against terrorism the South China Sea dispute and the role of ASEAN to promote regional security.





Equator represents jhe imaginary line passing round the Earth midway between the north and south poles. It, thus, divides the Earth into two equal halves (the Northern and Southern hemispheres).
Meridians represent the imaginary lines drawn out on the global map, from pole to pole and perpendicular to the Equator.
Prime Meridian is the 0° meridian which passes through Greenwich, a place near London. It is also known as the Greenwich Meridian.
Longitudes are the equidistant lines drawn east and west of die Greenwich Meridian. They denote angular distances of a place due east or west of the Greenwich Meridian. They converge at the two poles.
Latitudes are parallel lines drawn north and south of the Equator. They indicate angular distance of a place in relation to the Equator.
Tropics are literally tumingpoints. They refer to those parallels where the Sun is imagined to halt its movement and turn about northward or southward as the case
may be. The 23V20 north parallel is, thus, termed as the Tropic of Cancer and the 23′/20 south parallel as the Tropic of Capricorn.
Great Circles are imaginary circles whose plane passing through the centre of the Earth bisects it into two equal halves. For example, equator is a great circle. Parts of opposite meridian also constitute great circles. The number of great circles which can be drawn on a sphere is limidess. They are used to determine shortest distance between any two points on the surface of the Earth, cutting down the travelling costs by aircraft and ships.
Small Circles are similar to the great circles. However, they differ from great circles in the sense that their plane does not pass through the Earth’s centre. All the parallels of latitude north and south of the Equator make small circles

Contour Lines join places of equal height above sea level on a map.
Map Projection is the method by which the curved surface of the Earth is depicted on a flat surface of plane. In other words, it represents the projection of curved lines of latitude and longitude on a global map.
Zenithical Projection is adopted to construct equal area or equidistant maps. Equal area projection is frequently shown as a polar projection. Here, concentric parallels are drawn with the pole at the centre and with meridians as straight lines converging on the pole.
Conical Projection represents a part of the globe, projected upon a tangent cone, which in effect is opened up and laid flat.
Cylindrical Projection represents the globe as projected upon a surrounding cylinder, which, in effect, is opened up and laid out. Here, the lines of latitude and longitude are drawn as straight lines intersecting at right angles.
Mercator Projection represents the map of global area in a cylindrical type of projection, where the lines oflatitude and longitude are drawn as straight lines intersecting at right angles instead of the curved lines they ought to be. This projection can give correct shapes only for very small areas and their comparative size will be wrong.
Uthosphere is the topmost crust of the Earth on which stand our continents and ocean basins. The lithosphere has a thickness between 35 to 50 km in the continental regions, but becomes thin between 6 to 12 km under the ocean beds. In the high mountain regions, its thickness is estimated at about 60 km.
Though, strictly speaking, lithosphere includes both the land mass and thg ocean floors, generally it is used to’ denote only the land surface, which occupies a little less than 30 per cent of total area of the Earth.
Our knowledge about the interior of the Earth is based on the seismic waves, as they travel through the Earth. Scientists Ijavc concluded that the centre of the Earth or Earth’s core is a solid sphere with a diameter of about 2,740 km. The rocks in this solid core are about three times as dense as those in the crust.
Surrounding the inner core of the Earth is an outer core, which is about 2,100 km thick. In this outer core, temperature ranges between 2,000°C to 5,000°C.
Between the outer core and the crust of the Earth is the dense ‘mantle’ which is about 2,900 km thick. The ‘mantle’ is mostly solid, but at its top, some rocks are molten or semi-molten.

The topmost portion of the Earth, the crust, is the land mass comprising soil, sand and rocks. In fact, all the sand and much of the soil that we have, has come to us from ancient rocks that have crumbled down under the impact of heat of the Sun and the cool of the rains, a process that has gone on for thousands of years.

‘Sun-Shine’ Beaches of West Bengal



The southernmost part of the state is endowed with some of the most famous beaches


Dive into Digha….

Capture a breathtaking sunrise or sunset. Keep it with you forever. Walk, run, trot, jump along wide, flat packet-sand beaches and watch the gentle waves keeping pace with you. Hear the clean, fresh, ozone-laden wind sing in the groves of casuarinas. Let your heart sail away on the local fishermen’s boats, which go our every¬day, straight into the rising sun.
Yes, you have arrived at the singularly serene sea resort of West Bengal.
At Digha, you can thrive on seaside snacks— soft-boiled eggs and fried soft-shell crab or salt water-shrimp. Or plunge into a variety of gastro¬nomic adventure—seafood banquets, authentic Bengali, Chinese or Continental cuisine, and inexhaustible amounts of green coconut water to waslj it all down.


Mandarmani, the popular picnic re-sort is just an hour’s drive from Chauikhola on the Kolkata-Digha route. Chandaneswar, an old Shiva temple, is 8 km, Dariapur 45 km, famous for an ancient temple associated with Bankim Chandra’s novel Kapal Kundala, Junput fish farm 40 km, it also has a beautiful sea beach.
ACCOMMODATION: From star category to econ-omy, Government-run tourist lodges, tourist cottages, Saikatabas and Rest Houses. Besides, there are a large number of private hotels and lodges in Old and New Digha.
It is only 187 km by road from Kolkata. Digha is just four hours by car from the city. It is directly connected with Kolkata by regular ‘dawn-to-dusk’ bus service.

Sun-sational Shankarpur…

Till recently it used to be a quaint little fishing vil¬lage and the old-world charm still re¬mains. Take a short detour from the road to Digha and you will be looking at cleanliness, the most enchanting sea-beach swarmed with red crabs.

Step beyond the casuarinas that line the beach and the village and find rows of fishing boats drying out in the sun like great whales which have been beached.
Fishing Harbour nearby —the tangy smell of brine and fish fills your nostrils and your heart.
It’s an oasis of tranquillity where you can re¬vive your spirits, weave impossible dreams, ro¬manticise or just have fun with family and friends. And once you taste the fresh-caught fish, eating the hot aromatic dish with your fin¬gers, while the sun goes down—it will be an unforgettable experience.

Benfish. Several small private hotels have come up in this area.
The same car, bus or train that take you to Digha will take you to Shankarpur with a change at Ramnagar/14 mile.
Tajpur, is the latest addition in tourist map of Bengal. The prime attraction of Tajpur is its pris¬tine sea beach fringed with a dense forest of tamarisk trees. The beach is infested with infinite number of red crabs, which play hide and seek in the sand.
Tajpur offers various adventure sports op¬tions like para-gliding, rafting, rock-climbing and other activities.


Don’t scram when a flock of red-beaked sea¬gulls burst from the clear waves. But step care¬fully on the carpet of red crabs that is spread across the beach—smart little creatures which are just ahead of your toes. Keep walking for¬ward and the carpet recedes in front of you, to disappear into the waterline.
Bakkhali/Fraserganj inunspoilt, serene and sensational, all at the same time. Laze in the sun, go wading in the gentle surf.
Go shell-picking. Watch fishermen come in with their silvery catch. Glory in the sun leaping up like a fiery red ball from the surface of the sea. Experience darkness descending like a cur¬tain, with a velvet sky arching over your head and catch the phosphorescent gleam of the rolling waves. The casuarinas groves are thick, quiet and full of romance.


There is a comfortable tourist lodge and several private hotels.
It is only 132 km by road from Kolkata. Take a three hour bus-ride to Namkhana. Hop on the ferry to cross Hatania-Doania river with the ve¬hicle that takes about an hour to reach Bakkhali/ Fraserganj.